Wireman proposes a sequential implementation of steps to ensure that all functions for maintenance management are in place. He believes that a basic preventive maintenance (PM) program should be in place before we advance to the next level, the CMMS implementation.
He asserts that a suitable “work order release system” (to schedule and trigger appropriately prioritized tasks) and a maintenance resources management system are required before one considers the implementation of Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and predictive maintenance programs. The operators must also be aware of the importance of their own role in the maintenance function. Thus, operator as well as general employee involvement would be the next level addressed in the implementation process. It is noted that “Total Productive Maintenance” (TPM) programs, an innovation of the 1980s, consist of management initiatives and interventions (as is TQM) that heavily emphasize operator involvement inroutine maintenance. Therefore, if in place, TPM would considerably help in achieving operator involvement and routinize the use of optimization techniques, TPM would also help configure the necessary maintenance organization structure — to facilitate continuous improvement in maintenance practices. Figure 1 is the overall picture of Wireman’s model.
Campbell also suggests a formal structure for effective maintenance management (see Figure 2). The process starts with the development of a strategy for each asset. It is fully integrated with the business plan. At the same time, the HR related aspects required to produce the needed cultural change are highlighted. Next, the organization gains control to ensure functionality of each asset throughout its life cycle. This is carried out by the implementation of a CMMS, a maintenance function measurement system, and planning and scheduling the maintenance activities. It is accomplished according to various tactics employed depending on the value that these assets represent and the risks they entail for the organization. Among these tactics Campbell includes a) Run to failure, b) Redundancy, c) Scheduled replacement, d) Scheduled overhauls, e) Ad-hoc maintenance, f) Preventive maintenance, g) Age or use based, h) Condition based maintenance, and i) Redesign. Finally, Campbell proposes the implementation of two highly successful methods for continuous improvement — RCM and TPM. He also recommends the use of process re-engineering techniques (Activity Based Process Mapping techniques, Process Value Analysis techniques, and Innovative Process Visioning techniques, among others) for stepped leap improvements in maintenance.
Pintelon and Van Wassenhove provide a maintenance management tool to evaluate maintenance performance. The tool consists of a control board and a set of reports to analyse certain ratios. This tool is applied in five different domains falling under the control of the maintenance manager: cost/budget, equipment performance, personnel performance, materials management and work order control. For each of these domains the control board displays ratios with actual, expected, target, notes and attention data.
Pintelon and Gelders discuss a maintenance management framework in which the primary aspects of maintenance management (MM) are included. The framework has three building blocks:
- The operations management/maintenance management system design activity. This formally places MM within the broader business context where marketing, finance and operations interact for their key decisions, to avoid each function to pursue its own limited objectives. Here MM is considered as one of the sub-functions of the operations function;
- A second building block in maintenance management decision making is planning and control which includes decisions that the maintenance manager should make in three major business functions (marketing, finance, and operations), management of resources, and performance reporting. The more technical maintenance theories and methods (such as maintenance technology — studying technical issues that can help improve maintenance such as new repair or monitoring technique or techniques related to better maintenance design) — are not directly included here;
- The last building block is called the maintenance management toolkit. It consists of statistical tools to model the occurrence of failures in the system, plus various OR/OM techniques and computer support to help optimize the actions and policies.
Marquez, A. C., The Maintenance Management Framework: Model and Methods for Complex Systems Maintenance, Springer, 2007.